What is Diabetics

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What is Diabetics

The secretion of insulin is vital to life since it lowers the blood glucose level. A deficiency in insulin production leads to the metabolic disease known as the diabetics’ Mellitus in which the blood glucose level reaches such a level that it exceeds that which the kidneys can reabsorb, and so is excreted in urine. A diabetic is an illness in which the pancreas does not make sufficient insulin or where cells do not respond appropriately to insulin. Patients who have with high blood sugar will experience polyuria (recurrent urination). Therefore, they will become increasingly thirsty (polydipsia) and also hungry (polyphagia).




Sugar diabetics or diabetics Mellitus is one of the commonest metabolic diseases in humans. In developed countries, approximately 1% of people suffer from diabetics Mellitus. The incidence is lower in many countries, for reasons which are not yet fully understood.

Diabetes is a long-term condition in which, due to lack of insulin, the sugar level in blood increases.  In the year 2013, it was estimated that approximately 382 million people were out there who sufferers of this metabolic disease. There are three types of diabetics:

 

  • Type 1 Diabetes – the body does not produce an adequate amount of insulin. About 10% of all diabetes cases are type 1.
  • Type 2 Diabetes – the body does not produce enough insulin to perform many other functions properly. 90% of all cases of diabetes worldwide are of this type.
  • Gestational Diabetes – this type of diabetes affects females during pregnancy only.

The common diabetes symptoms are:

  • frequent urination
  • intense thirst
  • intense hunger
  • Weight gain
  • Unusual weight loss
  • Fatigue
  • cuts or bruises that do not heal
  • male sexual dysfunction
  • Numbness and tingling in hands and feet

If you have are victim of Type 1 diabetics then follow the below tips to lead a normal life:

  • Maintain a healthy eating plan
  • do adequate exercise
  • Take insulin.

If you are a victim of diabetics Type 2 patients then you need to:

  • Eat healthily
  • be physically active
  • Test blood glucose regularly

(Alternatively, doctor might ask you to take oral medication or insulin to control blood glucose levels)

Basically, the risk of cardiovascular disease is much higher than for a diabetic. Perhaps, it is very important that blood pressure and cholesterol levels are monitored on a regular basis. Diabetic’s patients should stop smoking as it might have a serious effect on cardiovascular health.  Low blood glucose (Hypoglycemia) can sound not too good and have a bad impact on diabetic’s patients. Alternatively, high blood glucose level (Hyperglycemia) can also have same bad impacts.

There are three types of diabetes:

 

  • Type 1 diabetes

Type 1 diabetics are known as insulin-dependent diabetes or juvenile-onset diabetes. It is also referred as early-onset diabetes. In this case, the pancreas seems to be incapable of secreting sufficient insulin. It is thought that this might be due to a deficiency in the gene which codes for the production of insulin, or because of an attack on the b cells by the person’s own immune system. This form of diabetes, as suggested by its name, usually begins very early in life.

  • Type 2 diabetes

The second form of diabetes is called non-insulin-dependent diabetes. In this form, the pancreas does secrete insulin, but unfortunately, the liver and muscle cells do not respond properly to it. It frequently begins relatively late in life and is often associated with obesity.

The symptoms of both the diabetes mellitus are the same. After a carbohydrate meal, blood glucose levels rise and stay high. Usually, there is no glucose in urine, but if blood glucose levels become very high, the kidney fails to reabsorb all the glucose so that some passes out in the urine. Extra water and salts accompany this glucose, and the person consequently feels extremely hungry or thirsty.

In a diabetic patient, uptake of glucose into cells is slow, even when blood glucose levels are high. Thus cell lack glucose, and metabolic fats and proteins as an alternative energy source. This can lead to a build-up of substances called keto-acids in the blood, which lowers the blood pH. The combination of the following three things can cause coma in extreme conditions:

-dehydration

-salt loss

-and low blood pH.

Between meals, when blood glucose levels would normally be kept up by mobilization of glycogen reserves, the blood glucose levels of a person with untreated diabetes may plummet. This is because there is no glycogen to be mobilized. Once again, coma may result, this time because of a lack of glucose for respiration. In insulin-dependent diabetes, regular injections of insulin, together with a carefully controlled diet, are used to keep blood glucose levels near normal. The person must monitor their own blood glucose level, taking a blood sample several times a day. For patients who are suffering from non-insulin-dependent diabetes, insulin injections are not needed that often. Control is by diet only.

3) Gestational diabetes

This type of diabetes affects females during pregnancy. Basically, women have high levels of glucose in their blood when they are pregnant. Their bodies are unable to produce an adequate amount of insulin to transport all of the glucose into their cells. Thus, this results in progressively rising levels of glucose.

The diagnosis of gestational diabetes is done only when a woman is pregnant.

Luckily, the majority of gestational diabetes patients can regulate their diabetes with exercise and diet.

Until the early 1980s, all insulin was obtained from animals such as pig and cattle. In the 1980s, insulin was made but this time differently. It was made using bacteria into which the human insulin gene had been inserted. This insulin is much cheaper than that obtained from animals.

Remember that all types of diabetes are treatable. Diabetes type 1(insulin-dependent diabetes) lasts a lifetime and there is no known cure. Diabetes Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent diabetes) usually lasts a lifetime, but however, some people have managed to get rid of their symptoms without medication. All they did is through a combination of exercise; body weight control and diet they have to get rid of the existing symptoms of type 2 diabetes.




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